THE CHRONICLE OF THE CITY OF POZNAŃ Year 1961 Number 2 SUMMARY
Kronika Miasta Poznania: kwartalnik poświęcony problematyce współczesnego Poznania 1961.04/06 R.29 Nr2Czas czytania: ok. 32 min.
MESSAGE FROM MINISTER OF FOREIGN TRADE
The Poznań International Fair which will be held Jor the thirtieth time this year constitutes a fine paae in the rieh annais oj the city oj Poznań. The Poznań International Fair plays an important part in the development oj Poland 's trade exchange with the rest oj the world, which shows particularly in recent years a dynamie upward ten den cy. For it is possible to show here, in a much wider manner than is the case at Jairs and exhibitions held abroad, Po la tn d 's ach ievemen ts in the field oj industry, agriculture and handicraJts. This is the reason why it is possible to a. much greater extent to introduce here new assortments in to the Polish export. The direct contact oj home producers with Joreign buyers, taking place during the Jair, helps the Polish industry to adapt itself io the requirem en ts oj Joreign customers and helps to improve produetion. The importance oj these contacts is constantly growing together with the growmg share oj machinery and installations, as well as oj durable consumer go o ds, in our exports. The increasing number oj exhibitors Jrom various countries taking part in the Fair, as well as the ever larger participation, ap art Jrom socialist and west European countries, a Iso oj the overseas countries, is the outward criterion oj the importance oj the Poznań Fair. This importance is not confined to countries with which Poland maintains commercial contacts. The role oj the Fair as an important point on the road oj tra de exchange between East and West is becoming ever more distinet. The Poznań International Fair opens its doors Jor the thirtieth time this year.
This jubilee oj the Fair is at the same time the jubilee oj the City which is doing its b es t, in aecordance with the means in its p ossession , to expand the Jacilities oj the Fair. I wish the town authorities and the inhabitants oj Poznan that the degree in which the needs oj the city and the populatkm are being met should increase simultaneously with the deve lop m en t oj the International Fair at Poznań.
PROF WITOLD TRĄMPCZYNSKI Minister oj Foreign Trade
Warsaw, June 1961.
STEFAN ASKANAS The PI F Genera1 Manager
WHAT THE POZNAŃ FAIR MEANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLISH FOREIGN TRADE
The principal task of the Polish foreign trade is to ensure for the national economy sufficient imports of raw materials, materials for production, production instaUations and consumer goods, with the simultaneous preservation of the equilibrium of the balance of payments. The Poznań International Fair constitutes an important and valuable instrument in the implementation of aU these tasks, together with increasing the volume of turn-over, and above aU of export. The importance of the PIF is not determined by the size of the concluded transactions alone. A number of other essential factors come into it. The first that should be mentioned is the commodity structure of the transactions concluded at the Fair. The commodity structure of the Fair exports is here of decisive importance. The share of machinery and instaUations in the Fair exports has be en for many years much greater than in the aU-Polish exports. Similar, although less distinct, is the case with the export of agricultural and food products and of industrial consumer goods. The share of the export of raw materials, on the other hand, is far below the national level. As regards the export of raw materials, an increasingly larger specific weight is being assumed by Chemicals (1955 - 3.3% of the whole Fair export, 1959 - 17.2%). On the basis of the above remarks we can define the structure of the Fair exports as distinctly favourable. The process of the improvement of the structure is strongly marked by the fact that the export of machinery , instaUations and transport equipment constituted, at the 29th Fair, 57.1 % of aU export transactions, as against 25.4% which it represented in the national export transactions, while the corresponding figures for 1955 were 17.4% and 12.1 % .
The Poznań International Fair contributes to the improvement of the international socialist division of labouL At the same time, the fact that the share of the socialist countries in the transactions concluded at the Fair is lower than their analogous share in the aU- Polish exports shows the important role played by the Poznań International Fair in opening for the Polish foreign trade new markets and acquiring new customers in capitalist countries. The increase of the volume of export transactions concluded at the PIF with capitalist countries in 1960 by about 15 miUion foreign currency zlotys in comparison to 1959 constitutes an essential and very promising aspect of this role. The capitalist countries are also participating in a considerable degree in cur imports. The import transactions madę at the Fair in 1955 were distributed as foUows: 24.4% wit h capitalist countries and 75.6% with socialist countries, while the corresponding figures for 1960 are 35.1 % and 64.9% respectively. This was aceompanied by a very considerable increase of the volume of the transactions. As regards the Fair imports from capitalist countries, the main item is the import of machinery and instaUations. Of no less importance is the fact that tho Fair makes it possible to buy machinery and production instaUations with shorter delivery dates. The prospects of the futurę development of the Poznań International Fair are extremely bright. It is shown distinctly by the size of the exhibition area hired by foreign exhibitors, which has grown considerably sińce 1955.
The Poznań International Fair was consolidating in the 1955-1960 period its commercial function and played an important role in the very desirable and increasingly livelier trade contacts between East and West. The geographica! Position and the generał location of Poznań predisposes this city to be a commercial meeting place for Europę, and to a certain extent for other continents as well. This is the reason why the Poznań International Fair constitutes a particularly convenient place for the establishment of new and the expansion of theexisting commercial contacts on an international scale.
THE PAST I THE PRESENT AND THE PROSPECTS OF THE POZNAŃ INTERNATIONAL FAIR
The inhabitants of the Poznań region maintained commercial contacts even in ancient times with far-away lands, including the Mediterranean zone. The trade began really to flourish in the 10th Century when Mieszko I and Bolesław the Brave madę Poznań the capital of their powerful monarchy. Weekly markets were held at Sródka, on the right bank of the Warta river. Following the almost complete destruction of Poznań in 1038, it was only in the middle of the 13th Century that outside trade began again to develop in Poznań. The privilege of 1231, by which Prince Odonic granted to all traders, both Polish and foreign, going to Poznań "on the octave of St. Dominic's Day" an absolute freedom from all customs duties contributed particularly to this development. A more important part than. tha t of the Prince Odonic privilege was played by the document of location on new borough rights, granted in 1253 and based on western patterns. The new document replaced the Polish law, prevailing up to that moment in the towns. On the basis of the location act Poznań was also granted the right of the fair, that is of an annual market which assumed an international character. Owing to the Warta river Poznań took an active part, through Szczecin, in the export of raw materials (timber, tar, pitch, charcoal, wax, etc.). The Poznań craft guilds, particularly those of leather-dressers and clothiers, which in the 14th Century succeeded in ensuring the sale of their produce abroad, expand. Commercial trails to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Wrocław, Toruń and Gdańsk are established. A great change-over took place in the Poznań trade thanks to King Władysław Jagiełło. This wise monarch granted to Poznań the right of the so-called three-day relative storing right in 1394 and a royal privilege forbidding travelling traders to conclude any commercial transactions without the participation of a local merchant. This meant a two-fold entwining of the traders of the borough of Przemysław into the current of transit trade and international middle-manship. Moreover it forecast a period of prosperity due to the large profits accruing from it. Even more lasting and profitable prospects opened up for Poznań in the field of the transit and international trade with the establishment of the union between Poland and Lithuania (14th Century). The export of commodities from Lithuania, Great Russia and Byelorussia went chiefly up to that moment through Great Novgorod, being directed to Liibeck and other cities of the Hanseatic League. The monopoly of the Hansa broke down and a stream of commodities flowed through the Polish lands. Poznań found itself in its bed, for at the turn of the 14th an ever more important economic role in the trade between East and West is played, apart from the southern routes, also by two northern
tracks. One great track led from Ruthenia via Zhitomir or Lvov to Lublin, Radom and Poznań, and further on to Magdeburg and Leipzig. Thanks to that, Poznań establishes commercial contaets with the Tartar countries, Moldavia, Turkey and the Black Sea outposts of Genoa, which operate via Lvov. Another great commercial route was formed between Lithuania, Byelorussia and the Grand Muscovite Principality on the one hand, and central and western Eurppe on the other, running through Vilna, Grodno, Warsaw, Poznań in the direction of Frankfort-on-the-Oder and Leipzig. Huge quantities of hides and furs (going into hundreds of thousands), wax, hemp, flex and kermes (European cochineal) were exported from the east. Imports included broadcloth, leather goods, metal and glass products (from Nuremberg) and products of the artistic industry, as well as delicate woollen and silk fabrics (from I taly). The "golden age" of Poznań which becomes the leading Polish city, lasted from the middle of the 15th until the middle of the 17th Century. Poznań was at that time the third largest city in Poland after Cracow and Gdańsk. Traders from all over Europę and Asia Minor had their meeting place then at the St. John's Fair, famous at that time in all parts of the continent. The St. John's Fairs were held as early as the middle of the 15th Century. The period of their greatest development was in the 16th and the first half of the 17th Century. The St. J ohn's Fairs are already a forerunncr of the Poznań International Fair of to-day, due to their regularity, their international character and their function as intermediary between East and West. Two facts speak for the great importance and international character of the St. John's Fairs: first, the then function of Poznań as an intermediary contained certain monopolist features, and second, there existed in Poznań a huge centrę for the international trade in hides and furs, something on the lines of a furriers' exchange (for example, one of the contracts mentions the staggering quantity of 840,000 grey squirrel pelts, and contracts of that size were not rare at all). It can be assumed that those fairs played in their times certainly a no smaller role than the Poznań International Fair of the 20th Century. Apart from the big wholesale trade in hides and furs there existed also in Poznań an international trade in cattle. The Poznań wholesale traders bought cattle at the markets in Ruthenian, Podolian or Moldavian townships and then exported it to centralor western Europę (for example, 8,000 heads of cattle were driven through Poznań in 1508 and 55,000 heads went through the city from 1509 to 1552). Very dynamie was also the Poznań trade in broadcloth, both as regards imports (mainly from England and the Flanders) and exports of the local products. Poznań became the largest Polish centrę of trade in broadcloth in the 16th Century. The export of the excellent Poznań region wool went towards Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Saxony. Finally, Poznan was a large import market for herrings (from Gdańsk) and in the 15th and until the middle of the 16th Century the main supplier of kermes for western Europę. These insects were very much sought after as a dyeing medium in the textile industry, imported from the East.
The "golden age" of Poznań ended in the middle of the 17th Century. A period of revival of the economy and trade of the city begins under the reign) of Stanislaw Augustus Poniatowski. A number of rescripts aimed at restoring to Poznań its former importance were issued. For example, every person building a house was freed from taxes, favourable conditions we re created for people establishing manufactures, trading houses or other enterprises. Many trading and business firms began to flow into Poznań from abroad due to facilitiesgranted them to acquire borough rights (1780). But above a11, the famous St. J ohn's Fairs were reestablished (fair dues were abolished for three years), as we11 as other markets. This flourishing period was unfortunately brought to an end by the second partition of Poland in 1793. As a result of the final partition of Poland (1795), Poznań, cut otf from the rest of Poland and situated on the peripheries of the Prussian State, loses its international position and becomes stagnant. The Polish element in Poznań tried a11 the time to preserve the old fair traditions. A wool market was organized on the initiative of Poznań merchants. It was held for the first time between June 7th and 12th 1837. Over 400 traders from many German and foreign towns came to the market and bought 4,442 quintals of wool. These markets assumed an ever growing international character and developed until the eighties of the 19th Century. Even earlier (since 1828) there had developed in Poznań and other towns of the Poznań region grain markets, ca11ed St. Martin's markets (November 11th) which subsisted until 1914. An exchange for agricultural produce existing since 1865 should also be mentioned.
Apart from the traditional fairs and markets there came into being in the 19th Century economic exhibitions, as a new form of promoting exchange. The first economic exhibition was organized in Poznań in 1850 at the Działyński Palące under the auspices of the Polish Industrial Society (there were 70 exhibitors from the Polish handicrafts, industry and agriculture). The next agricultural exhibition was organized by the Germans in 1864 and repeated as an agricultural and industrial event in 1872. A "Provincial Industrial Exibition" was prepared in 1895 jointly by Poles and Germans. It was a big event (630 exhibitors) organized on the scale of several neighbouring eountries and the whole of Germany. The Germans organized for propaganda reasons a huge exhibition (350 thousand Square metres of exhibition area, of which 44 tousand roofed in) in 1911. Preparations started in 1920 resulted in 1921 in the Organization of the 1st Poznań Fair. This was already a modern fair representing the effect of a combination of a mediaeval market (annual regularity and commercial function) with a 19th Century exhibition (the form of exposition and the territorial or branch review of the economy). The Poznań Fair, considered at first as a home event, fulfi11ed at the same time the role of an international fair. Since 1925 it has assumed a fu11y international character. It has gradua11y gained an ever greater importance, and not only stood its ground in the veritable flood of fair events (the number of 454 fairs in 1923 dropped to 57 in 1932) but even succeeded in winning for itself one of the leading positions in Europę. The period of the history of the Poznań Fair in prewar Poland is divided into four stages: 1921-1924, 1925-1928, 1930-1933 and 1934-1939. In the fi r s t s t a g e (1921-1924) the Poznań Fair was characterised by its domestic character with a very negligible participation of foreign exhibitors. The s e c o n d s t a g e (1925-1928) embracing the fairs from the 5th to the 8th saw a distinct development of the fair which was influence d by the economic revival of the country. Moreover, the Poznań Fair became an event of an international character in the fii11est sense of the word, acquiring popularity in the whole of Europę and other parts of the world (Brazil, Iran, J apan, Palestine, the U nited States, Turkey). The Fairs from the 5th to the 7th we re attended by 15 states, and the 8th by 17 states (always including four overseas eountries). This stage closed for the PIF with a diplomatic and legal success, for it was admitted in 1928 to the "Union des Foires Internationales" (UFI). This was an introduetion to
Streszczeniathe subsequent granting to the PIF of the rights of a founder member of the Union after the 1930 Poznań congress of the UFI at which the Statute of the Union of International Fairs was signed.
The t h i r d s t a g e (1930-1933) became unfavourable for the fair. I t embraced the fairs from the 9th to the 12th in the years of a deep World economic depression. The Organizers succeeded in ensuring for the 12th PIF which closed that stage the participation of quite new Asian and African countries (Indochina, French Equatorial Africa, Algeria, Madagascar and Tunis). The fair was also attended for the first time by an official Soviet commercial mission. The fi n a l d e vel o p m e n t s t a g e of the Poznań Fair Covers the fairs froin the 13th to the 19th (1934-1939). The year 1935 saw a fundamental change in the Organization of the Polish exposition and the exposition technique which was reflected, among other things, in a very striking and aesthetic form of the exposition and architectonic side of the 14th PIF, which was subsequently brought to perfection at the 18th PIF in 1938. The total number of exhibitors increased by its double in the fourth stage (2,200 at the 18th Fair), and the number of visitors increased three times (315,000). The percentage of foreign exhibitors (according to the number of exhibitors) and the number of states taking part in the PIF also increased (from 11 states in 1934 to 17 in 1938), while the turnover reached the record amount for those times of 120 million zlotys. Taken as a whole it showed the stabilization of the development of the Poznań International Fair. The nazi invasion in 1939 interrupted the development of the PI F . The history of the PIF in people's Poland is divided into two principal periods: the first period (1945-1950), the period of reconstruction and restauration of the Fair, towards the close of which it assumed distinct didactic and exposition features, and the second period (1955-1960), the period of the growing commercial function of the PIF and its growing importance on world scalę. a) The first PfF period (1945-1950). There are three stages to be observed: the preparatory stage of 1945-1946, the stage of 1947-1948 reviving the traditions of the inter-war period fairs, and the stage in which didactic and exposition elements were its predominant features. The p r e p a r a t o r y s t a g e consisted in the reconstruction of the fair installations completely devastated during the war and in the efforts to restore the PI F . The impulse te revive this event was born in Poznań. It was embodied in a resolution of the Municipal People's Council (July, 1945) and in the setting up of the Poznań Fair Commission. The Building Department of the City's Council organized at the same time in 1946 a separate PIF Reconstruction Bureau which directed the reconstruction of the fair until 1949. As a result, 26,000 Square metres were put into order and four halls reconstructed in 1946. 50,000 Square metres were put into order and two halls, as well as the administration building were reconstructed in the years 1946-1947, and eight new pavilions were built. The process of fuli reconstruction of the PIF was closed in the years 1947-1950 (11 halls and 16 pavilions, but the exhibition area was smaller by 10,000 Square metres than in 1939).
The s e c o n d, so-called traditional, s t a g e was started with the 20th PIF. It did not show as yet the whole complex profile of the Polish eeonomy, and as a fair purely devoted to the presentation of models, it did not deal wit h didactic Problems. Its main role was to be its commercial function (establishment of trade contacts wit h abroad and the presentation of an average of the Polish production), accompanied by a political and social function. The Organization of the
exposition folIowe d the pre-war traditions. The Soviet Union, Bułgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Yugoslavia and Mexico should be mentioned first out of the 11 states which took part in this fair. A smaller part was played by Finland, Holland, Sweden, Switzerland and Italy.
The 1948 exposition of the 21st PIF showed in eomparison to the previous -ore a tremendous economic progress cf the country, although it did not pretend to show an average of Poland's economic Position. Apart from the countries that participated in the earlier fairs, the 21st fair was attended by six new states: Hungary, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Great Britain and the United States, that is over fifty per cent more than in 1947 (altogether 16 states). Taken as a whole its international character was much more distinct than that of the 20th PIF. The centrę of gravity of the exposition was laid on industrial machines and instal-lations.
The t h i r d s t a g e, the stage when the didactic and exposition character of the fair became its predominant feature started at the 22nd PIF which mirrored the successes of the Polish economy and reflected the Polish economic Programme. Although it was intended initially to give the 23rd PIF an export function, it was transformed even more distinctly into an exposition of problems and a great demonstration of the achievements of People's Poland. This happened in view of the fact that the three-year plan had just been ended and the sixyear plan was approaching. The system of exposition was changed from the subjective to the objective (systematic technical exposition according to branches, according to exhibits and not according to exhibitors). Finally, towards the close of the first period the PIF assumed rather a didactic and exposition character with a certain weakening of its former commercial function. The annual character of the fair ceased to play an essential part. b) The second period (1955-1960) - the PfF a world fair. The Poznań International Fair was not held in the years 1951-1954. The Poznań Fair was resumed in 1955 following a decision of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers of June 16th, 1954. Further energetic reconstruction of the fair was started at once in 1954. The exhibition area was enlarged in the years 1954-1959 by 16,000 Square metres.
A characteristics feature of the second period are tendencies quite different from those of the first period. The Poznań Fair is given at once a commercial function which is becoming more distinct every year. The didactic function loses its importanee (except at the 24th PIF). The PIF becomes gradually a sensitive instrument of the foreign trade policy. The Poznań Fair performed also another function which depended in the intensif ication of economic contacts between East and West. As many as 66 states exhibited at the PIF during the 1955-1960 p e r i o d (47 in 1959, and a record number of 57 in 1960, that is three times as much as in 1950). The total number of exhibitors increased at the same time in the years 1955-1960 by over one hundred per cent. The exhibition area increased by nearly 30% in 1955 and by 65% in 1960 in eomparison to 1950. The area of foreign exposition was expanding even more rapidly - 95°10 increase in the years between 1955 and 1960. The percentage share -cf foreign exposition in the total fair exposition was also increasing, oscillatmg in the last three years within the limits of 58-62%, which is a record of a kind on world scale and confirms the great role and the strictly international character of the PIF. Very encouraging is the exchange of technical, economic, geographic and other
Streszczeniaexperience, in which specialists from many countries are taking part. More than four thousand experts assembled in 1959. The development prospects of the P I F and the development chances of the Polish foreign trade in the next few years are considerably ahead of earlier considerations. The resolutions of the 3rd Congress of the Polish United Worker's Party set the increase of the total turn-over in 1965 at 46%> as against 1958. The largest share among the socialist countries will devolve to the Soviet Union, the GDR and Czechoslovakia. An increase of turn-over in our tra de relations with the capitalist countries is also to be expected. This pertains also to the European states affiliated with the so-called common market and the European Free Trade Association. The very existenee of these organizations makes the process of competition more acute and offers no Privileges to the socialist states. In spite of this, the exports of the socialist states (including also Poland) to the membres of those economic organizations increased in 1960 by 279 million dollars as compared to 1958, while the imports increased by 223 million dollars. Export from the socialist states (including Poland) to the so-called "Little Europę" (GFR, France, Italy and Benelux) increased in the same period by 188 million dollars. A considerable increase of turn -over with countries outside Europę is also to be expected. This turn -over will constitute about 30% of the total volume of Polish turn -over with all capitalist countries. Another element that enables us to look forward with confidence to the development of the P I F in the Coming years are the investment plans of the Poznań Fair Management. A big new exhibition hall has been already handed over for use for this year's 30th PI F . Its area is 3,100 square metres. Another modern giant exhibition hall is now under construction and will be completed in 1962. Complete reconstruction of the existing big exhibition halls will be begun about 1963. The exhibiting area of the above-mentioned halls will increase twofold in result of these large Investments. A third element on the base of which further development of the Poznań International Fair can be expected to take place in the next few years, is the Programme of the development of the city itself for the years 1961-1965, particularly of its sections connected directly with the Fair. Thousands of new flats are to be built in the Settlements of Grunwald I and II, Winogrady and Rataje. The Grunwald settlement is already growing. The Winogrady settlement is planned for 22 thousand inhabitants, while the modern large residential section of Rataje will have about 120 thousand inhabitants. In order to implement this building Programme it is of course necessary to expand correspondingly the public Services. New water, sewage and gas lines must be laid, electricity lines must be installed. It will also be necessary to build new streets and lines of communication. The construction has already begun of a new large water distribution network. The construction of a new collector will begin soon. A sewage cleansing plant and a sewage pump-station will be reconstructed and modernized, and a new sewage cleasing plant built by 1965. The gas supply and the street lighting are also to be improved (six thousand new street lamps). Seventy kilometres of new streets are to be laid in the 1961-1965 period.
The main road investment will be the so-called E-W thoroughfare which will connect the centrę of the city with the north-eastern sections over three bridges across the Warta river. Another new thoroughfare to be cut across the centrę of the city will go along Al. Marcinkowskiego to Dolna Wilda and still another new thoroughfare will be Aleja Hetmańska connecting the Grunwald sections directlywith Wilda. The tramcar , as well as the trolley-bus networks will be extended (the latter by 4 kilometres). Bus lines will be extended by 17 kilometres. The transport rolling-stock will increase by 55 tramcars, 85 buses and 14 trolley-buses. The construction of a large "Orbis" hotel with accomodation for 630 has already be en started. The plans include also the building at an early datę of a motel for 90-120 visitors. Another motel wit h camping site is to be built on the southern bank of the lake at Kiekrz. A special holiday centrę run by the P I F Management will be set up there too, and another similar centrę at the Strzeszynek lake. Two road-side car stations, a car-service Station at Wola, as well as some parking spots will be prepared for the convenience of foreign guests. Finally, the Ministry of Agriculture will begin the construction of a modern exhibition centrę at Wola where horse and live-stock shows will be held.
THE POZNAŃ TOURISM CENTRĘ IN THE SERVICE OF PIF VISITORS
Visitors to the Poznań International Fair find usually the time to go on sight-seeing tours of the city and its environs, to become acquainted wit h the touristic attractions of the Poznań region. The tourists to be impressed most while in Poznań are those from France (souvenirs from Napoleon's stay in Poznań) and from Italy. The Poznań Town Hall, the most magnificent monument of the Italian lay renaissance north of the Alps, was built by an Italian arehitect, Giovanni di Quadro. The churches of St. Joseph and St. Casimir were built by Italiens, Cristoforo Bonadura, senior and junior, and by Catenaci. Poncino, Catenaci, and the most famous of Italian architects staying then in Poznań, Pompeo Ferrari, were working at the cathedra!. The baroque interior of the Carmelite chapel in the Corpus Christi church is also the work of the latter . Another Italian, Francesco M. Lanci designed the Golden Chapel at the cathedral, while Salandri of Venice executed its mosaics. The tombstones of the magnate family of Górka and of bishop Adam Konarski in the cathedral, considered to be one of the best works of renaissance sculpture in western Poland, were done by an Italian master, Canavesi. A portrait of Stanislaw Augustus painted by Baeciarelli is hang ing at the Old Town Hall which has been turned into a museum, while the election scenę of this last Polish king has be en put on canvas by Bernardo Bellotto, known as Canaletto. So far, we have mentioned Europę only. The Museum of Musical Instruments will take us to other continents. It is unique in Poland and one of the biggest in Europę. Apart from Europę, the countries represented in it best are China with Tibet, India, Vietnam, Mongolia, Korea and J apan. Besides foreigners, Polish and local artists were at work in Poznań. A 16th Century triptych at St. John's Church, guild paintings at St. Margaret's and many others are of local origin. The renaissance statuę of bishop Izdbieński at the cathedral, madę by Jan Michałowicz of Urzędów, is equal to the masterpieces of Italian masters. The Franciscan Church is the most "Polish" church in the city. The "Polish character" of this church is supplemented by portaits of nobles on wali tombstones and on coffins, a Poznań curio, the most "thoroughbred" Polish art.
Our foreign visitors will acquaint themselves best with the Polish art at the N ational Museum which has a gallery of Polish paintings from the 16th Century until the present day. The gallery includes works by the most prominent masters of recent years (Taranczewski, Kantoi, Lebenstein and Potworowski). A permanent salon at the ancient guard- house in the Old Market Place contains works of contemporary Polish art exclusively. Kórnik and Rogalin are important cultural and tourist centres of the Poznań region. In the Kórnik museum are paintings by the Italian masters, Lampi, Grassi, Bacciarelli and even Titian. But it is first of all a museum of Polish relics: a gallery of portraits of eminent Polish families, old Polish weapons and armours, ancient harnesses, artistic handicraft products, Polish historical relics, including royal ones. The Kórnik Park can also be considered an interesting sight-seeing spot. It has about 10,000 varietes and species of trees and shrubs from various parts of the world. Rogalin is only 12 km from Kórnik and is situated in a picturesque forest environment. The Rogalin 18-th-century Palące contains relics from the era of the French Revolution. Beautiful old oaks are its ornament. Three of them growing next to one another have been named after the three legendary Slav brothers, Lech, Czech and Rus. Rogalin is famed for its old oaks and 800 of them have been recognized as monuments of naturę. Many of them have 8-10.5 m trunk circumference. A big attraction for motoring tourists are the roads leading to and from Poznań through interesting localities, such as Gniezno (the cathedral with its Romanesque portal), Trzemeszno (remains of Romanesque architecture), Strzelno (worldfamous columns), Biskupin (ancient Slav settlement), Lednica (ancient borough), Zaniemyśl (the so-called Edward Island), Środa (Ornaments in its gothic church and a renaissance chapel) , Jarocin (the co-called "Treasury" situated in a charming park, the site of a very interesting ethnographic exposition), Gołuchów (an English park and the architecture of the Castle, former Czartoryski Museum), Kalisz (interestmg sacral architecture, a Rubens painting, interesting archaeological excavations and a museum containing, among other items, an interesting ethnographic section). Archaeological preserves exist also at Ostrów Lednicki, Giecz, Gniezno, Biskupin, Kruszwica, Kalisz and Santok.
The landscape of the Poznań region is characteristic of its undulations, a large degree of afforestation and numerous lakes, and has many attractions for tourists and anyone looking for rest. There are five lakes within the city limits. The Malta lake has been xeserved for water sports and the Rusałka lake for rest. Good rest conditions are also to be found at the Strzeszynek lake which lies among meadows and high coniferous woods. The Kierskie lake with an area of 310 hectares and 4 km long is the biggest sailing centrę in the Poznań voivodship. The Poznań National Park situated in the town triangle Luboń-StęszewMosina with an area of 10,000 hectares is the most popular holiday and tourism centrę. One half of it is wonderful old woodland, approaching primeval forests. The terrain undulations remind one of a sub-alpine landscape and an additional attraction is a river and fifteen lakes, most of them enfolded by woods. Raił and road transport is very convenient. The N aturę Park of Promno has four forest lakes and several preserves. A third forest centrę in nearest vicinity of Poznań is the natural preserve at Dziewicza Góra, of an area of many thousands of hectares, which joins the Zielonka forest.
JAN ZAK EARLY MEDIAEVAL SETTLEMENT ON THE OSTRÓW ISLE AT POZNAN IN THE LIGHT OF EXCAVATING RESEARCH OF 1960
Poznań, one of the capitals of the early Piast feudal state, has for long arrested the interest of many research workers. Excavations on the island of Ostrów, the cradle of Poznań, were begun in 1938 and led to the discovery, in the western part of the square in front of the cathedral, of a powerful borough wall of timber and clay contruction, reinforced at the front with a stone parapet, originating from the latter part of the 10th and the beginning of II th Century. A fragment of a nether borough was also discovered. Further research was taken up a year later, this time south of the smalI church of Virgin Mary. Simultaneously, reconnaissance work was carried on in the eastern part of the Seminary garden and in the Lubrański Street. Documents about this work we re lost during the last war. We know, however, that a wall fragment from the 10th and 11th centuries was discovered south of the Virgin Mary Church. Together with the topographical data from the Ostrów isle, this research gave a basis for the first reconstruction (vision) of the borough and the nether borough on the Ostrów isle as a compact settlement. It appeared, however, in the light of researches carried on by H. Muench who based himself on 18th-century plans, that as late as the 18th Century the Ostrów isle was still divided into two parts, separated on the south-eastern side by the enclave of the lowlands flooded by the Cybina river. Further attemps at the reconstruction of the Poznań borough and nether borough, this time, however, as regards its development, were made on the basis of the 18th Century cartography and of new archaeological researches carried on in 1946, 1948, and in the 1950-1954 period. The whole result of archaeological investigation, data from written and cartographic sources and comparative materiał made it .possible to distinguish three fundamental phases in the development of the settlement on the Ostrów isle. The pre-urban period lasted from about the 8th to the middle of the 10th Century. The second phase began about the middle of the 10th Century and ended in 1039. This was doubtless an urban period during which local institutions began to take shape. The third phase, from the middle of the II th to the middle of the 13th Century, with its climax in the 12th Century, is a period of the development of local rights, "Polish" rights. Further research-work was carried on in 1960, from July 11th to November 15th.
The results obtained in 1960 throw more light on the problem of the settlers in the middle part of the isle. This pertains first of all to settlement in the 10th and 11th centuries. The discovery of the fragment of the wall of the nether borough allows to reconstruct with relative accuracy the size of the cathedral nether borough in its southern part. On the basis of numerous relics found during the excavation work one calI surmise that the nether borough was rather densely built up and inhabited by well-to-do individuals of the feudal Community. The nether borough was adjacent to the borough whose walls were slightly stronger than those of the nether borough. New and valuable materials were found, that throw light on the character of the settlement itself in the southern part of the Ostrów isle, showing that the settlement reached the Warta river. It was here that the St. Nicholas Church was built in the 12th Century, as well as a graveyard. Slag, iron-scrap, semi raw materials and finally smith's furnaces discovered in the central part of the
11 Kronika Miasta Poznania 2
Streszczeniaisle, point to a great development of smithery at the settlement in the 12th and 13th centuries. It must be borne in mind that handicrafts played at that time the part of the heavy industry of to-day. Numerous broken fragments of vessels, reguHir in shape and carefully executed prove beyond doubt the handicraft charaeter of the production for the lord and for sale. These crafts, especially the smith's craft distinctly enhanced the role of the urban centrę in the 12th and 13th centuries, established by the on "Polish rights" on the Ostrów isle. But it should be added that the Ostrów of the 12th and 13th centuries had already a competitor in the handicrafts of another settlement in Poznań at the St. Gothard Church, that is on the left bank of the Warta.
JOZEF MODRZEJEWSKI NEW ARCHITECTONIC ACCENTS IN DOWN-TOWN POZNAŃ The centrę of the city of Poznań suffered very serious damage during the hostilities of 1945. The heaviest damage was inflicted on the historical quarter (round the Old Market Square). Large dents appeared in different blocks of the newer section west of the old town, least damage was suffered by the vicinity of Adam Mickiewicz Square. Depending on the degree of war damage, lesser or greater possibilities existed for the removal or alleviation of irritating contrasts between the new and the old. The author deals with several morę recent architectonic concepts which represent an attempt at introducing modern accents into the traditional centrę. One of the largest Investments of the 1961-1965 period is the new II Orbis II hotel, opposite the U niversity Bridge, at the crossing of two important thoroughfares, the Roosevelt Street and Zwierzyniecka Street. The design of the new hotel, by professor Cieśliński and messrs Grochuiski and Wacławski, belongs indisputably to the most interesting architectonic concepts originated in Poznań sińce the war. The building is placed slightly back in relation to the neighbouring streets. It.
Stands at the back of an elegant Square designed for traffic and rest. On its north side there is a parking space and underground garages. The hotel will be a 9-story building the two lowest ones to be destined for Services. The total cubature of the building will be about 77,000 cubic metres, and it will be 32.8 m high. The main thoroughfare of the whole district will be Zwierzyniecka Street running from east to west. The most recent suggestions of town-planners assume a widening of this artery to 40 m with a round square at the citossing. Thus the width of Zwierzyniecka Street will be equal to that of Red Army Street, giving an outlet westwards to the traditional east-west thoroughfare. The northern side of Zwierzyniecka Street will have, apart from the "Orbis" hotel and a six-story office building, two other office buildings which together with a high block of flats will present a group of buildings with a differentiated centre-of-the-city Programme. The most monumental part of the city is a group of buildings erected after the demolition of the city forts round the present Adam Mickiewicz Square. The "Technician's House" which is now under construction will be the first contemporary architectonic accent in a pseudo- historical environment. The authors of the design (Jarosz, Leśniewicz, Wallenger) have solved a rather difficult problem in placing a considerable cubature (12,000 cubic metres) on a relatively smalI area. This will be a three-story reinforced concreto building wit h large glass surfaces .
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Following the tracing of two large city thoroughfares, the Stalingrad Avenue and the Marchlewski Avenue, a number of office-buildings we re put up along it. Their construction was continued also in the inter-war period. There are still some free sites available, which are now to be used. One of them, between Collegium Minus of the Poznań University and the seat of the Presidency of the Voivodship People's Council, is to be used for several departments of the Council which are at present scattered all over Poznań. The main difficulty was presented by the necessity of placing a big cubature (about 60,000 cubic metres) on a smali site and by the problem of connecting the old building with its new parts. The designers suggest the construction of two buildings, one of them -a 9-story and the other a 7 -story building. The 7 -story building is joined with an element to the eastern wing of the old building and with another element to the 9-story building. Thus all parts of the old and the new scheme are closely connected. The two designers of the new Collegium Philosophicum were faced by other, but no easier problems. The execution of the investment plans of the Poznań U niversity will be of paramount importance for the whole neighbourhood. So far the route from the Station Bridge to Ratajczak Street, which is one of the main arteries for the traffic flowing from the Station to the centrę of the city, was offered but a narrow, limited view. The group Collegium Philosophicum with a cubature of 55,000 cubic metres will stand out among a number of new buildings. The latter include two Millennium schools faced by a block of flats and a large gastronomie establishment.
THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF THE ADAM MICKIEWICZ UNIVERSITY OF POZNAN FOR THE YEARS 1959-1965
The Senate of the Adam Mickiewicz U niversity adopted unanimously on N ovember 2nd, 1959 "The Development Plan of the U niversity for the Years 1959-1965" .
The U niversity has, at present, the following departments: Law, Philisophy and History, Philology, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, Biology and Geology. The central library constitutes a separate unit. There are also three special University Studies: Foreign Languages, Physical Training and Military Courses.
AlI the departments have atotal of 66 chairs and 81 scientific establishments.
They employ 103 professors and lecturers and 12 associate Professors.
The development plan of the university is based on the following directives.
It Starts from the assumption that the university is a school at which all that pertains to naturę science and arts should be studied, while it is not practical to concentrate at the university all directions of studies, particularly those at which the so-called practical science is studied. Therefore, forming the model of the university for the nearest years, the present Programme of the diseiplines at the university should be adopted as a basis. N ext, the plan assumes that the main aim of the university should be to serve science and teaching above all in the north-western part of Poland, that is in the following voivodships: Poznań, Zielona Góra, Szczecin, Koszalin and partly Gdańsk. Third, the plan accepts the fact that the existing proportions between the humanities and the natural science at the university are not proper . To strike a proper balance it is
Streszczeniaindicated, while promoting the developement of humanities, to put morę emphasis on the development of the natural science disciplines. The plan assumes a further increase in the number of students. This will be as follows:year total number of students 3,320 3,700 4,400
I t is planned to found new chairs in the various departments. 8 new chairs are to be founded at the Law department, 3 at the Philosophy and History department, 3 at the Philology department. Ten new chairs will be founded, apart from the existing Ilones, at the Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry department and 2 new chairs at the Biology and Geology department.
In order to remedy to a large extent the scarcity of premises, the following new premises and buildings are included in the plan: a) Collegium Philosophicum with a cubature of about 55,00 cm., b) Collegium Phisicum with a cubature of about 60,000 c. m., c) two many-story buildings for 400 persons each, d) two blocks of flats for scientific workers, with 1200 living rooms each.
In an article The Water Problems oj Poznań, Stanisław Koł a c z k o w s ki writes about the economic and aesthetic importance of the Warta river for the city of Poznań. In the latter part of his article the author deals wit h the possibilities for setting up health resorts at the numerous lakes of the Poznań region. In his article The Choirs oj Poznań, Norbert Kar a ś k i e w i c z presents a review of the present artistic level of the Boys' Choir - directed by Stefan Stuligrosz - of the Poznań Philharmonie Hall (founded 400 years ago) the Kurczewski Choir, the Girls' Choir of Mrs M. Wróblewska and the Cooperative Mixed Choir named after Stanislaw Moniuszko.
Information about the preparations for the international Henryk Wieniawski violin competition which will be held in Poznań in 1962 is given by the secretary of the excutive committee of the competition, Włodzimierz K a m i ń s ki. Biographies of the winners of the city of Poznań prizes for 1960 have been collected by Tadeusz O r l i k. The Presidency of the People's Council of Poznań awarded on February 23rd, 1961 the following annual awards for 1960: to Zdzisław Gór z y ń s k i - for outstanding achievements in the propagation of musical culture, to Jerzy Kor c z ak - for his life-time literary work, to professor Gerard L a b u d a - for outstanding scientific achievements in the humanities, to Stanisław S t r u g a rek - for the whole of his artistic and publicist activity in radio broadcasting. A collective award - to dr Zdzisław P a z o l a and dr Antoni S w i e r c z y ń s ki - for outstanding achievements as inventors and rationalizers of production. A collective award - to Witold M i l e w s k i and Zygmunt S k u p - ni e w i c z, architects, - for outstanding achievements in the designing of schools. Youth awards - to dr Witold Jur c z y k - in medicine, to Andrzej K a nd z i o r a - in plastic arts, to dr Bolesław W i e w i ó r a - in international law. An obituary note about the distinguished scientist, head of the chair of the Physiology of Plants and Agricultural Chemistry at the Adam Mickiewicz University and the Higher Agricultural School, professor Bronisław N i k l e w s k i (1897-1960), has be en written by Jan Woj c i e c h o w s ki.
Professor Mikołaj R u d n i c ki, the eminent linguist, editor-in-chief of the Slavia Occidentalis, celebrated the 50th anniversay of his scientific work.
The issue contains also three reports: on the activity of the committee for the construction of a monument to Adam Mickiewicz, on the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the activity of the Y outh Culture House in Poznań, and on the activity of the Social Fund for the Reconstruction of W arsaw.Powyższy artykuł jest częścią publikacji Kronika Miasta Poznania: kwartalnik poświęcony problematyce współczesnego Poznania 1961.04/06 R.29 Nr2 dostępnej w Wielkopolskiej Bibliotece Cyfrowej dla wszystkich w zakresie dozwolonego użytku. Właścicielem praw jest Wydawnictwo Miejskie w Poznaniu.